Why 192.168.1.1 is the Most Common Default gateway for Routers

If you are reading this article, most probably you have heard of 192.168.1.1 because you may have searched for this and landed on this page. Today in this article, I’m going to explain, what is 192.168.1.1? What can be done with 192.168.1.1 and why 192.168.1.1 is the most common default gateway for routers?

What is 192.168.1.1?

192.168.1.1 is private IP address that is the default gateway of most common wireless routers such as Netgear, Asus, D-link, TP-link etc. 192.168.1.1 IP address is a class C private IP address that opens the management console of various wireless routers and ADSL modems. Actually router manufacturing firms like Netgear, d-link, Asus etc. inbuilt a framework software to their wireless devices by which user can easily manage and change the configuration of wireless router and network simply by logging into this IP address (with username and password). However, 192.168.1.1 is the most common default gateway for routers but you may also find 192.168.0.1 as the default gateway for some routers.

What is Default Gateway?

A default gateway is an access point or IP router that allows computers on a network to communicate with computers on another network. As it is named, default gateway means the gateway that is used by default until another gateway is specified by an application. The default gateway allows devices to pass traffic from the local subnet to devices out of that subnet (another subnet) means the default gateway a; sp connects the local network to the internet.

Types of Default Gateway

Typically there are two types of the default gateway

  1. Default gateways on home or small office networks with a broadband router to share internet connection. In this type of network, the home router serves as the default
  2. Default gateways on home or small office networks without a router. For example, a network with a dial-up internet connection. In these types of network, a router at the ISP (internet service provider) end serves as the default gateway.

You can also configure default network gateways using an ordinary computer instead of a router. These gateways use two network adapters: one is for local subnet and the other one is for outside network.

What is IP Address?

An IP address (internet protocol address) is a series of numbers assigned to network devices such as a router, computer, wireless printers, and Mobile devices. The IP address or internet protocol address is used for two reasons: location addressing and network identification. IP address allows a computer or other networking device to communicate with other devices over a network like an internet. IP address provides an identity to a networking device. For example, we all have a physical home address which specifies the physical identifiable location where we live. Networked devices also have their own unique address that differentiates them from one another. This address is called their IP address.

Classes of IP Address

To understand why 192.168.1.1 is most common default gateway, we need to understand how internet addresses were originally designed?

There were 5 different classes of internet protocol address namely A, B, C, D and E. Class A, B, and C addresses consider how the address actually appears in the binary form. In these classes, the address is shown by four groups of 8 bits. These IP addresses are actually separated into two parts, first part represents the network and the second part represents host. For example:

Consider a typical IP address used on a home network

192.168.1.1

In binary it is

11000000 10101000 00000001 | 00000001

Network part                                       host part

Means in the IP address 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1 is the network part of the address and 1 is the host part

Class A Addresses

In class A addresses, the highest bit is set to 0 along with next 7 bits as network part and the remaining 24 bits being the host. Thus, Format of class A IP address is 0NNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH. HHHHHHHH. HHHHHHHH, where N is Network and H is Host. Class a IP address ranges between 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255.

0xxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

Class A gives us network up to 16777216 hosts but limits us to 126 networks.

Class B Addresses

In class B addresses, the highest bit is set to 10 with next 14 bits as the network part and the remaining 16 bits being the host. Thus, Format of class B IP address is 10NNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH where N is Network and H is Host. Class B IP address ranges between 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255.

See the example below

10xxxxxx xxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

It gives 16384 networks and up to 65534 hosts each network.

Class C Addresses

In class C addresses, the highest bit is set to 110 with next 14 bits as the network part and the remaining 21 bits being the host. Thus, the format of class C IP address is 110NNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH where N is Network and H is Host. Class C IP address ranges between 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255

See the example below

110xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxx

Class c gives us 2097152 networks and up to 256 hosts each network

What is Private IP Address?

A private IP address is non-internet facing IP Address on an internal Network. In other words, a private IP address is an address that is reserved for internal use (behind the router or another device) which is used internally in the absence of internet.

Ranges of IP Addresses:

10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255

172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255

192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

private IP addresses help us to solve problems by allowing us to have a single Internet gateway with a public IP address and All of the other nodes have private IP addresses. The internet gateway uses a Network Address Translation (NAT) server to convert the private IP addresses to an IP address that can be routed across the Internet (public IP address).

Classes of Private IP Address

The Following table shows classes of private IP address along with their range:

Class Private Networks Subnet Mask Address Range
A 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
B 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.0.0 255.240.0.0 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
C 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

 

As is stated above, 192.168.1.1 (the most common default gateway for routers) uses class C IP address which can be understood by the above table.

Hopefully, you have understood the meaning of IP address, default gateway, and classes of IP address. Now you can easily understand why 192.168.1.1 is the most common default gateway for routers?

Why 192.168.1.1 is the most common default gateway for routers?

The main reason 168.168.1.1 is the most common default gateway for routers that, it falls within the smallest private address range (192.168.1.1 – 192.168.255.255). As previously discussed, 192.168.1.1 is a class c private address means it can be used by anyone on a private network such as a home or a private office. Class C traditionally gave 254 usable addresses (from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.0.254) where 192.168.0.0 is the network address required for Dynamic Control Host Protocol and 192.168.0.255 as your broadcast address.

As we know Class C addresses ranges between 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 in this range, 192.168.1.1 is the lowest number. Therefore, it was chosen as the default address for routers. Another reason for choosing this as default gateway is, you can remember this number easily. Using 192.168.1.1 is actually an easy way to configure routers. You can just type this address into your browser’s address bar and a configuration page will come up when you enter your user name and password (if your router does not ask for user name and password, please contact to your ISP (internet service provider) it may have a serious problem).

Now the next question is, do all routers use 192.168.1.1 as their default address? And the answer is No, some other routers have a different default gateway. There is no any rule or law to use 192.168.1.1 as your default address, it is just a convention (tradition).

Some other common default gateways are 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.2.1 (routers like D-link a TP-link uses these type of addresses)

How to find the default IP address of your router?

The easiest and simplest way to find out the IP address of your browser is using the command prompt to find it.

To find the IP address of your router using command prompt:

  1. Open your command prompt window (press ctrl+r, type cmd and hit enter)
  2. On the command prompt window, type ipconfig and hit enter.
  3. Locate the default gateway appeared in the list, this is your router’s default address.

Can’t retrieve the default IP address for your router? Don’t worry I’m giving you a list of Default IP addresses for most common routers. Find the list below.

Router Brand Common Default IP Addresses
2Wire 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.1.254
10.0.0.138
3Com 192.168.1.1
192.168.1.10.1
Actiontec 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.2.1
192.168.254.254
Airlink 192.168.1.1
192.168.2.1
Airlive 192.168.2.1
Airties 192.168.2.1
Apple 10.0.1.1
Amped Wireless 192.168.3.1
Asus 192.168.1.1
192.168.2.1
10.10.1.1
10.0.0.1
Aztech 192.168.1.1
192.168.2.1
192.168.1.254
192.168.254.254
Belkin 192.168.1.1
192.168.2.1
10.0.0.2
10.1.1.1
Billion 192.168.1.254
10.0.0.2
Buffalo 192.168.1.1
192.168.11.1
Card King 192.168.0.1
Cisco 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.30
192.168.0.50
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.2
Dell 192.168.1.1
D-Link 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.10
192.168.0.101
192.168.0.30
192.168.0.50
192.168.1.254
192.168.15.1
192.168.254.254
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.2
10.1.1.1
10.90.90.90
Edimax 192.168.2.1
Eero 192.168.0.1
Eminent 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.8.1
Gigabyte 192.168.1.254
Google 192.168.86.1
192.168.0.1
Hawking 192.168.1.200
192.168.1.254
Huawei 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.3.1
192.168.8.1
192.168.100.1
10.0.0.138
LevelOne 192.168.0.1
192.168.123.254
Linksys 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.1.10
192.168.1.210
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.99
192.168.15.1
192.168.16.1
192.168.2.1
Microsoft 192.168.2.1
Motorola 192.168.0.1
192.168.10.1
192.168.15.1
192.168.20.1
192.168.30.1
192.168.62.1
192.168.100.1
192.168.102.1
192.168.1.254
MSI 192.168.1.254
Netgear 192.168.0.1
192.168.0.227
NetComm 192.168.1.1
192.168.10.50
192.168.20.1
10.0.0.138
Netopia 192.168.0.1
192.168.1.254
Planet 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.1.254
Repotec 192.168.1.1
192.168.10.1
192.168.16.1
192.168.123.254
Senao 192.168.0.1
Siemens 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.1.254
192.168.2.1
192.168.254.254
10.0.0.138
10.0.0.2
Sitecom 192.168.0.1
192.168.1.254
192.168.123.254
10.0.0.1
SMC Networks 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.2.1
10.0.0.1
10.1.10.1
Sonicwall 192.168.0.3
192.168.168.168
SpeedTouch 10.0.0.138
192.168.1.254
Synology 192.168.1.1
Sweex 192.168.15.1
192.168.50.1
192.168.55.1
192.168.251.1
Tenda 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
Thomson 192.168.0.1
192.168.1.254
192.168.100.1
TP-Link 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.254
Trendnet 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.30
192.168.0.100
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.254
192.168.10.1
192.168.10.10
192.168.10.100
192.168.2.1
192.168.223.100
200.200.200.5
Ubiquiti 192.168.1.1
192.168.1.20
U.S. Robotics 192.168.1.1
192.168.2.1
192.168.123.254
Zoom 192.168.1.1
192.168.2.1
192.168.4.1
192.168.10.1
192.168.1.254
10.0.0.2
10.0.0.138
ZTE 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.100.100
192.168.1.254
192.168.2.1
192.168.2.254
Zyxel 192.168.1.1
192.168.0.1
192.168.2.1
192.168.4.1
192.168.10.1
192.168.1.254
192.168.254.254
10.0.0.2
10.0.0.138

 

 

What can be done with 192.168.1.1?

The only thing we can do with 192.168.1.1 is, we can login to our router’s login home page using this address and configure the router setting by signing in using the username and password. Once you logged in to your router’s home page using 192.168.1.1 address, you can manage several settings such as IP Qos, DNS, Proxy, LAN, WAN, security Options, change password etc.

How to Login using 192.168.1.1?

To login to your router’s configuration home page:

  1. Open your web browser and type http://192.168.1.1 into your browser’s address bar and hit enter. (if 192.168.1.1 is not your router’s default IP address, find your router’s IP address using the method I have explained above)
  2. A pop-up screen will appear asking the username and password. Enter the user name password for your router to login.
  3. Click login button and you will be logged into your router’s configuration page.

Hopefully, you have understood what is IP address, what are the classes of IP address, and the most important, why 192.168.1.1 is the most common default gateway for routers.

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